PAROLA D’AUTORE

PAROLA D AUTORE | T1 Elton Mayo The Problems of an Industrial Civilization, Harvard University Graduate School of Business Administration, Boston 1945 Rules to guide the interview In questo brano l autore si sofferma sulle modalità con le quali deve essere condotta una tipica intervista della psicologia del lavoro. Mayo sottolinea l importanza di mantenere uno stile attento, non giudicante e pronto all ascolto. Si tratta di una competenza che deve essere acquisita attraverso l esperienza e un periodo di formazione. It was speedily discovered that the question-and-answer type of interview was useless in the situation. Workers wished to talk, and to talk freely under the seal of professional confidence (which was never abused) to someone who seemed representative of the company or who seemed, by his very aptitude, to carry authority. The experience itself was unusual; there are few people in this world who have had the experience of finding someone intelligent, attentive, and eager to listen without interruption to all that he or she has to say. But to arrive at this point it became necessary to train interviewers how to listen, how to avoid interruption or the giving of advice, how generally to avoid anything that might put an end to free expression in an individual instance. Some approximate rules to guide the interviewer in his work were therefore set down. These were, more or less, as follows: 1. Give your whole attention to the person interviewed, and make it evident that you are doing so. 2. Listen don t talk. 3. Never argue; never give advice. 4. Listen to: (a) What he wants to say (b) What he does not want to say (c) What he cannot say without help 5. As you listen, plot out tentatively and for subsequent correction the pattern (personal) that is being set before you. To test this, 414 | PSICOLOGIA | from time to time summarize what has been said and present for comment (e.g. Is this what you are telling me? ). Always do this with the greatest caution, that is, clarify but do not add or twist. 6. Remember that everything said must be considered a personal confidence and not divulged to anyone. (This does not prevent discussion of a situation between professional colleagues. Nor does it prevent some form of public report when due precaution has been taken). It must not be thought that this type of interviewing is easily learned. [...] The important rules in the interview [...] are two. First, Rule 4 that indicates the need to help the individual interviewed to articulate expression of an idea or attitude that he has not before expressed; and, second, Rule 5 which indicates the need from time to time to summarize what has been said and to present it for comment. Once equipped to do this effectively, interviewers develop very considerable skill. But, let me say again, this skill is not easily acquired. It demands of the interviewer a real capacity to follow the contours of another person s thinking, to understand the meaning for him of what he says. Rispondi 1. Quali sono le istruzioni che vengono impartite all intervistatore nella quarta regola di Mayo? 2. Che cosa prescrive la regola n. 5?

Spazio Scienze umane - volume 1
Spazio Scienze umane - volume 1
Psicologia - Metodologia della ricerca